He is the Spirit of God, and at the same time the Spirit of Christ ( Romans 8:9 ); because He is in God, He knows the deepest mysteries of God ( 1 Corinthians -11 ), and He possesses all knowledge. Paul ends his Second Epistle to the Corinthians () with this formula of benediction, which might be called a blessing of the Trinity: "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ , and the charity of God, and the communication of the Holy Ghost be with you all." -- Cf. In lviii, 2 (Funk, ibid., 172), the author makes this solemn affirmation ; zo gar ho theos, kai zo ho kyrios Iesous Christos kai to pneuma to hagion, he te pistis kai he elpis ton eklekton, oti . From this it follows that, in Clement's view, kyrios was equally applicable to ho theos (the Father), ho kyrios Iesous Christos , and to pneuma to hagion ; and that we have three witnesses of equal authority, whose Trinity, moreover, is the foundation of Christian faith and hope. 155), in his torments, thus professed his faith in the Three Adorable Persons ("Martyrium sancti Polycarpi" in Funk op. in everything I praise Thee, I bless Thee, I glorify Thee by the eternal and celestial pontiff Jesus Christ, Thy well beloved Son, by whom, to Thee, with Him and with the Holy Ghost, glory now and for ever! Epipodius spoke more distinctly still (Ruinart, "Acta mart.", Verona edition, p. What, indeed, does this breathing signify, but that the Spirit proceeds also from Him? Athanasius had argued in exactly the same way (De Trinit. He shall glorify me; because he shall receive of mine, and shall shew it to you. Therefore I said, that he shall receive of mine, and shew it to you." Now, one Divine Person can receive from another only by Procession, being related to that other as to a principle.The same doctrine is declared, in the second and third centuries, by the lips of the martyrs, and is found in the writings of the Fathers. cit., I, 330): " Lord God Almighty, Father of Thy blessed and well beloved Son, Jesus Christ. 65): "I confess that Christ is God with the Father and the Holy Ghost, and it is fitting that I should give back my soul to Him Who is my Creator and my Redeemer." Among the apologists, Athenagoras mentions the Holy Ghost along with, and on the same plane as, the Father and the Son. What the Paraclete will receive from the Son is immanent knowledge, which He will afterwards manifest exteriorly. L., XXXV, 1887), "because He is not from Himself, but He shall tell you all He shall have heard. In His case, to hear is to know, and to know is to be.
Both send Him, but He is not separated from Them, for the Father and the Son come with Him when He descends into our souls ( John ). In Acts , he says to the Jews : "Well did the Holy Ghost speak to our fathers by Isaias the prophet "; now the prophecy contained in the next two verses is taken from Isaias 6:9-10, where it is put in the mouth of the "King the Lord of hosts". Peter asserts the same identity when he thus remonstrates with Ananias ( Acts 5:3-4 ): "Why hath Satan tempted thy heart, that thou shouldst lie to the Holy Ghost . It is by His operation that the greatest of Divine mysteries , the Incarnation of the Word, is accomplished ( Matthew , 20 ; Luke ). Unchanging and immutable Trinity." In 304, the martyr St. cit., 325): "I confess the Lord Jesus Christ, Son of the Father most High, one of one; I recognize Him as one God with the Father and the Holy Ghost." But we must come down towards the year 360 to find the doctrine on the Holy Ghost explained both fully and clearly. Athanasius who does so in his "Letters to Serapion" (P. To refute them he questions the Scriptures, and they furnish him with arguments as solid as they are numerous. No, the Trinity is not composed of the Creator and the creature." A little later, St. Was this creed, with these particular words, approved by the council of 381 ?
Many other texts declare quite as clearly that the Holy Ghost is a Person, a Person distinct from the Father and the Son, and yet One God with Them. In other places he uses the words God and Holy Ghost as plainly synonymous. It is also in His name and by His power that sins are forgiven and souls sanctified: "Receive ye the Holy Ghost. They tell him, in particular, that the Holy Ghost is united to the Son by relations just like those existing between the Son and the Father; that He is sent by the Son; that He is His mouth-piece and glorifies Him; that, unlike creatures, He has not been made out of nothing, but comes forth from God ; that He performs a sanctifying work among men, of which no creature is capable; that in possessing Him we possess God ; that the Father created everything by Him; that, in fine, He is immutable, has the attributes of immensity, oneness, and has a right to all the appellations that are used to express the dignity of the Son. Formerly that was the common opinion, and even in recent times it has been held by authorities like Hefele, Hergenröther, and Funk ; other historians, amongst whom are Harnack and Duchesne, are of the contrary opinion; but all agree in admitting that the creed of which we are speaking was received and approved by the Council of Chalcedon, in 451, and that, at least from that time, it became the official formula of Catholic orthodoxy.
The doctrine of the Catholic Church concerning the Holy Ghost forms an integral part of her teaching on the mystery of the Holy Trinity, of which St.
Augustine (De Trin., I, iii, 5), speaking with diffidence, says: "In no other subject is the danger of erring so great, or the progress so difficult, or the fruit of a careful study so appreciable".
But he operates especially in the soul, giving it a new life ( Romans 8:9 sq. Tradition While corroborating and explaining the testimony of Scripture, Tradition brings more clearly before us the various stages of the evolution of this doctrine. Clement of Rome gives us important teaching about the Holy Ghost. 909), "to hear us called atheists, us who confess God the Father, God the Son and the Holy Ghost, and hold them one in power and distinct in order [. " Theophilus of Antioch, who sometimes gives to the Holy Ghost, as to the Son, the name of Wisdom (sophia), mentions besides (Ad Autol., lib. L., II, 180); proceeding from the Father through the Son (iv, viii in P. These terms imply a relation of the Spirit to the Son, which can only be a relation of origin. Likewise you hear the Apostle declare: ' God hath sent the Spirit of His Son into your hearts. Why then should you refuse to believe that He proceeds also from the Son, since He is also the Spirit of the Son? G., XXVI, 1212), and concluded: "We say that the Son of God is also the source of the Spirit." (b) The Holy Ghost receives from the Son, according to John -15 : "When he, the Spirit of truth, is come he will teach you all truth.
), being the pledge that God has given us that we are his children ( Romans -16 ; 2 Corinthians ; 5:5 ; Galatians 4:6 ). His "Epistle to the Corinthians" not only tells us that the Spirit inspired and guided the holy writers (viii, 1; xlv, 2); that He is the voice of Jesus Christ speaking to us in the Old Testament (xxii, 1 sq.); but it contains further, two very explicit statements about the Trinity. xlvi, 6 (Funk, "Patres apostolici", 2nd ed., I,158), we read that "we have only one God, one Christ, one only Spirit of grace within us, one same vocation in Christ". which we may compare with the formula so frequently met with in the Old Testament : zo kyrios. This conclusion is so much the more indisputable as all admit the similar argument to explain why the Holy Ghost is called the Spirit of the Father. Could there then be two spirits, one the spirit of the Father, the other the spirit of the Son? Just as there is only one Father, just as there is only one Lord or one Son, so there is only one Spirit, Who is, consequently, the Spirit of both. If He did not proceed from Him, Jesus, when He appeared to His disciples after His Resurrection, would not have breathed on them, saying: 'Receive ye the Holy Ghost'. For he shall not speak of himself; but what things soever he shall hear, he shall speak; and the things that are to come, he shall shew you.We will, therefore, bring forward the proofs of the two truths together, but first call particular attention to some passages that demonstrate more explicitly the distinction of personality. Scripture In the New Testament the word spirit and, perhaps, even the expression spirit of God signify at times the soul or man himself, inasmuch as he is under the influence of God and aspires to things above; more frequently, especially in St.Paul, they signify God acting in man ; but they are used, besides, to designate not only a working of God in general, but a Divine Person, Who i&neither the Father nor the Son, Who is named together with the Father, or the Son, or with Both, without the context allowing them to be identified. We read in John, xiv, 16, 17: "And I will ask the Father, and he shall give you another Paraclete, that he may abide with, you for ever. Gregory of Nyssa took up the same thesis ex professo , supporting it for the most part with the same proofs.With these Apostles He will abide for ever ( John ). Considered with regard to the Father, the Holy Ghost is his wisdom (IV, xx, 3); the Son and He are the "two hands" by which God created man (IV, præf., n. Considered with regard to the Church, the same Spirit is truth, grace, a pledge of immortality, a principle of union with God ; intimately united to the Church, He gives the sacraments their efficacy and virtue (III, xvii, 2, xxiv, 1; IV, xxxiii, 7; V, viii, 1). Hippolytus, though he does not speak at all clearly of the Holy Ghost regarded as a distinct person, supposes him, however, to be God, as well as the Father and the Son (Contra Noët., viii, xii, in P. Tertullian is one of the writers of this age whose tendency to Subordinationism is most apparent, and that in spite of his being the author of the definitive formula: "Three persons, one substance ". One the Holy Ghost, having His subsistence from God. The Son proceeds from the Father; the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and the Son. A That the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father has always been admitted by all Christians ; the truth is expressly stated in John, xv, 26.Having descended on them at Pentecost, He will guide them in their work ( Acts ), for He will inspire the new prophets ( Acts ; 13:9 ), as He inspired the Prophets of the Old Law ( Acts ). 1035, 1081) the three terms theos, logos, sophia and, being the first to apply the characteristic word that was afterwards adopted, says expressly (ibid., II, 15) that they form a trinity ( trias ). And yet his teaching on the Holy Ghost is in every way remarkable. One the Lord, one of one, God of God, invisible of invisible. But the Greeks, after Photius, deny that He proceeds from the Son.He is the source of graces and gifts ( 1 Corinthians 12:3-11 ); He, in particular, grants the gift of tongues ( Acts 2:4 ; -47 ). He seems to have been the first among the Fathers to affirm His Divinity in a clear and absolutely precise manner. L., II, 193); of the substance of the Father (iii, iv in P. Gregory Thaumaturgus, or at least the Ekthesis tes pisteos , which is commonly attributed to him, and which dates from the period 260-270, gives us this remarkable passage (P. And yet such is manifestly the teaching of Holy Scripture and the Fathers.