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There are two families of receptors: ionotropic and metabotropic receptors.Ionotropic receptors are a combination of a receptor and an ion channel.The undershoot phase occurs because unlike voltage-gated sodium channels, voltage-gated potassium channels inactivate much more slowly.

After neurotransmitters are synthesized, they are packaged and stored in vesicles.

These vesicles are pooled together in terminal boutons of the presynaptic neuron.

Cellular neuroscience is the study of neurons at a cellular level.

This includes morphology and physiological properties of single neurons.

An action potential can be divided into several sequential phases: threshold, rising phase, falling phase, undershoot phase, and recovery.

Following several local graded depolarizations of the membrane potential, the threshold of excitation is reached, voltage-gated sodium channels are activated, which leads to an influx of Na ions.When there is a change in voltage in the terminal bouton, voltage-gated calcium channels embedded in the membranes of these boutons become activated.These allow Ca2 ions to diffuse through these channels and bind with synaptic vesicles within the terminal boutons.When ionotropic receptors are activated, certain ion species such as Na to enter the postsynaptic neuron, which depolarizes the postsynaptic membrane.If more of the same type of postsynaptic receptors are activated, then more Na will enter the postsynaptic membrane and depolarize cell.In neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time, in response to increases or decreases in their activity.